Cure For Poison Ivy

It is quite hard to deal with poison ivy rash. You are like dealing a burn injury. The affected skin turns red, swells or inflames, becomes itchy, burning, and painful, and blisters appear. Worse, it takes two to four weeks before you completely recover from it. The urushiol oil causes the top layers of the skin to die off and peel away and it takes time before these will be replaced with healthy skin. It is very important to have knowledge on cure for poison ivy. It is directed to control of the itch and pain.

To start the cure, clean the exposed parts with rubbing alcohol. Then wash the skin area with water only to avoid moving the oil by the soap. Using globes, wash everything which might have contacted the plant immediately with rubbing alcohol and water to at least reduce or completely eradicate the offending urushiol oil. Then, take a shower with warm water and soap. You may also soothe the itching area with cool, wet compresses or with Burow’s solution, and over the counter product. This helps dry the ooze faster. Oatmeal and or baking soda may be added to water for the affected area to be soaked and have a cool bath for 15 to 30 minutes. The two ingredients for homemade cure for poison ivy may also be made into a paste for topical application. Always leave the poison ivy rash open to air to help in the healing process. Also, even if it is very itchy, do not scratch the rash or break the blisters. These actions may result to another problem – infection. This is even worse.

If you have lotions or creams or ointments containing calamine, zinc acetate, or alcohol, these are great help too. These can eliminate the itching, dry the blisters, and aid speed healing.

Moreover, if the rashes are covering a large area in the sufferer’s body, it is better to consult a doctor on medications that will alleviate it such as oral antihistamines such as Benadryl and oral or topical corticosteroids like cortisone creams. Just be reminded that Benadryl causes the person taking it drowsy. Topical antihistamine is not recommended as cure for poison ivy rash because it may aggravate the problem with its allergic causing properties. Topical corticosteroids are more effective if applied immediately before blisters appear. The cream is also a good help after the blisters have dried up. A common oral steroid is Prednisone which aids in rapid improvement. The medication should be maintained with the dose being tapered or decreased over time for 10-14 days to prevent rebound of rash which can be severe this time.

The rash caused by the plant is not contagious so you may ask someone to help you do the cure for poison ivy. And to be always ready, it is advised that you should have a kit for such conditions. The kit should contain a rubbing alcohol, soap, and a large container of water.

Oxygen Treatment for COPD

If you have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease which is COPD including pink puffer and blue bloater, oxygen treatment is something that will benefit you both in the short-term and long-term. The treatment will help you breathe better and help you live longer by increasing the amount of oxygen that flows into your lungs and bloodstream. And now with new advances in the technology, you won’t have to stay at home or make a trip to the hospital to get the treatment as there are portable devices available.

Choosing to use oxygen treatment can reduce your risk of death caused by low oxygen and it will help you breathe better and overall, feel better. There are 3 different ways to deliver the oxygen treatment:

1.Oxygen gas cylinders
2.Liquid oxygen devices
3.Oxygen concentrators

Before you decide to pursue this treatment, you should, of course, speak with your doctor. Secondly, you should find out if you even need oxygen by getting an arterial blood gas test. If it is discovered that you are a good candidate for the treatment and your doctor gives you the okay, you should use it for at least eighteen hours a day and to get even better results, it can be used for twenty-four hours a day. During and after treatment, you will notice that you have more energy and can breathe easier. After a few treatments, your quality of life will significantly improve. There is a possibility you may notice some other positive things happening after consistent treatment including increased memory, decreased confusion and improvement in damaged kidney function.

As with any treatment for any ailment, there is the possibility of negative side effects. If you follow your doctor’s instructions and don’t use more oxygen than what is recommended, the treatment itself is rarely dangerous but remember, oxygen is flammable so do not use it in the presence of open flame. Be careful how much oxygen you use during exercise as the amount will be different in these cases. The same goes for traveling by air and sleeping. Oxygen levels can fluctuate during these events.

If you follow the guidelines outlined to you by your doctor and stick with what is recommended for you, you should have no problems with your oxygen treatment. In no time, you will be seeing and feeling the difference. You will sleep better, you will breathe better, you will move more freely and you will enjoy a happier, longer life. Talk to your doctor today and see how this excellent treatment can get you on the right track to a better quality of life today!

UTI and Bacteria in Urine

UTIs (urinary tract infections) are the aliments or infections of our excretory system. In these infections, kidneys, ureters, bladder that stores urine and urethra (opening through which urine is sent out of the body) are affected, usually because of bacterial invasion. Sometimes this may also result as a disease that already has taken over the body.

All the organs of excretory system are highly sensitive entities. Any minor or major kind of disturbance can affect them adversely. For example white blood cells in urine(details) or high Urobilinogen in urine(details). Kidneys, in particular, are the most sensitive ones, affected most often by body’s changing internal environment like any fluctuations in blood pressure or blood sugar levels.

UTIs are found both in adults and children. In children, they might take serious turns because the children’s excretory system is more delicate than the ones in adults. These infections are also found quite often in girls and women. Men having ages below 50 and boys usually have lesser cases because of some differences in the structure of excretory system.

Types of UTIs

Urinary tract infections can either affect the upper or the lower part of the excretory system. Regular diagnosis should be carried out so that these infections don’t go unchecked. If the infection starts in the upper parts of excretory system, it is particularly dangerous as the diagnosis is also difficult in this case. The general symptoms of UTIs are shivering, nausea, sensation of vomit, high fever, fatigue and other related symptoms.

Commonly UTIs may be called as simple or complicated:

  • Simple UTIs are the benign ones as they do not invade other body parts and remain restricted to the excretory system. These infections usually start in a completely normal excretory system and can easily be cured with medications.
  • Complicated UTIs are the malignant ones as they do spread to other areas of the body as well. Antibiotics and other medications usually do not affect them at all. They are the result of certain abnormalities present in the body’s anatomy and other ulterior factors

Bacteria involved in UTIs

Many different kinds of bacteria are found to be responsible for causing such infections:

  • A bacterium named E. coli is found to be the cause of the most easily cured type of UTI.
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus is another such strain causing the disease, particularly in young women.
  • Klebsiella enterococcus is another related bacterium.
  • Proteus mirabilis causes the infection in elder women.
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are some other bacteria found associated with certain UTI cases.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the type of bacteria that is associated with severe cases of UTI.

How long do hemorrhoids last

Hemorrhoid is a term used for swelling in the rectum and anal area, this can occur due to several hidden reasons. Despite of all it is wise to understand that its symptoms can be relieved but it is impossible to resolve this disorder.

Hemorrhoids are a disorder which occurs when there is a swelling in the anus and rectum area. If these bulging veins are irritated, they can trigger pain, burning, bleeding and itching. Nearly every person suffers from hemorrhoids at some or other point in life and how long they linger will depend on the hemorrhoids type, treatment selected by the physician and the factors which cause how long do hemorrhoids last and do hemorrhoids go away on their own.

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are generally associated with the age factor and often hit people with older ages. Also other factors like diarrhea, poor fiber diets, pregnancy, birth of child and other issues of bowel can trigger hemorrhoids. If the person consumes lesser then recommended fiber amount every day then it will make the movements of bowel difficult. Even straining can trigger external and internal side hemorrhoids. Straining and inflammation on a continued basis caused by diarrhea can irritate the anus and rectum area. It is commonly believed that hemorrhoids occurring during pregnancy are due to slow movements of bowels or delivery of child. But contrary to this concept, even a child’s weight in the womb can impose pressure on the intestinal veins.

How Long Do They Last?

It is not possible to determine the healing time o hemorrhoids. Surgery is one way of removing them temporally but with the help proper diet and employment of proper remedies you can cause the vein to shrink and make it less sensitive. Until and unless you remove off factors like friction, pressure which causes inflammation the hemorrhoids will remain itchy, sore and tender.

Treatment

To minimize the irritation caused by inflamed hemorrhoids, it is very important to maintain cleanliness. To keep the area extra clean you can also clean the area with medicated pads or wipes and avoid further aggravation. Another remedy is to use popular and renowned medicines as well as creams to relieve inflammation and irritation. But remember you can’t find a permanent solution with these methods though you can reduce the symptoms associated with them. For more detailed treatment you should consult your physician and visit him to identify the problem.

Causes of Sore Throat

Sore throat is mostly caused by infection and can be the precursor to a number of illnesses. There are few effective treatments but the condition is usually self limiting.

Sore throat is highly unpleasant and unfortunately, a very common symptom. The throat inflammation generally affects the pharynx (pharyngitis) – the major part of the throat area – but sometimes it hits the tonsils, just to make things really painful. This is often the case with children.

The condition can be the opening salvo of an illness that affects the whole body – generally a viral infection.

Causes of Sore Throat

Any irritant such as dust or pollen can cause the throat to become inflamed. If you happen to be allergic to the irritant then the symptom is likely to be worse. Inflammation caused by irritation can open the way for subsequent infection. Viruses are the major cause of sore throat and in second place are bacterial infections. Generally speaking if the cause is viral or bacterial the sore throat will be accompanied by a raised temperature.

  • Viral infections: numerous viruses can be the culprit. Cold and flu viruses, glandular fever, mumps, measles are a few examples. Many of these viruses of course will go on to produce their associated systemic illnesses.
  • Bacterial Infections: haemolytic streptococcus is the bacterium most at home in the throat. Neisseria gonorrhoea – the causative agent of gonorrhoea – is a fairly rare cause. In past times diphtheria was a common infection of the throat that killed many children. Thankfully, due to immunization, it’s much less common now.

Complications

As mentioned above many viral sore throats go on to become systemic illnesses. Mumps, flu, measles and glandular fever can be very unpleasant and occasionally serious illnesses. Bacterial infections can move to other areas of the body: the lungs to cause chest infections, the ear to produce otitis media and into the sinuses. Rarely, streptococcal infections may lead to rheumatic fever and kidney disease.

Treatment

Most sore throats will resolve in a few days with no treatment. If the cause is viral, there isn’t an effective treatment anyway. Symptomatic treatment with throat lozenges or soothing drinks is usually recommended.

Most of the bacteria that invade the throat respond to antibiotics, however this sort of treatment is controversial. A review for the Cochrane Collaboration by Del Mar, Glasziou and Spinks on 27 studies found that antibiotics shortened the duration of sore throat by an average of a day.

The authors suggest that antibiotics are of limited use in the treatment of sore throat. They point to the adverse side effects of antibiotics and to the growing problem of resistance and suggest that they are used only in patients where protecting against secondary infection is a priority.

Self-help

There are many herbal preparations said to ease sore throat. One simple remedy is to steep a tablespoonful of rose petals in hot water for ten minutes, then sweeten with honey if desired. Another is to steep two or three slices of fresh ginger root in hot water and again flavour with honey if wanted. If you’re inclined to the hot and spicy you could try just chewing a piece of raw ginger root, it’s said to be effective.

This article is for information only. If you have a sore throat that doesn’t go in a few days or you have other symptoms, then you should pay a visit to your doctor.

References

Medicine, eds. Souhami and Moxham. Churchill Livingston 2002

The Herb Book by John Lust. Bantam Books 1974

Commonly Known Causes of Pain in Lower Left Abdomen

Pain in lower left abdomen is caused by different health disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, left ectopic pregnancy, left ovarian disorder, kidney stone, etc. The pain may be severe or light depending on the disease and can be treated. Here we list these common causes as below:

Body : – Abdominal pain is normally experienced by almost every one of us at least once in a lifetime. There are various causes of abdominal pain. Speaking in layman’s language, the abdominal pain can be categorized in four parts namely upper right abdominal pain, lower right abdominal pain, upper left abdominal pain and lower left abdominal pain. Pain in each part is caused due to different health issues. It is caused due to various disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, ovarian disorder, kidney stone or infection, left ectopic pregnancy, etc. These causes can be explained as:

Bowel disorders : – One can experience pain in abdomen due bowel disorders like bowel cancer, bowel obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and constipation. In all these disorders, pain is experience on the lower left abdomen only if the left side of the abdomen is more affected. Some of the symptoms observed in person suffering from lower left abdominal pain are change in bowel habit, feeling like vomiting, feeling bloated, poor appetite and other such symptoms.

Kidney stone and kidney infection : – Kidney stone causes very severe pain in the abdomen. The pain due to kidney stone is spread over complete groin area and even the lower abdomen. The person having this disorder also experiences pain in lower back and feels like vomiting. Similarly, the pain in lower abdomen on the left side can be caused because of kidney infection. The person with such disorder feels like vomiting and feverish. Also, the person experiences pain or burning sensation while passing urine.

Ovarian disorder and ectopic pregnancy : – Ovarian disorders are many like endometriosis, ovarian cyst, etc. Although broadly speaking ectopic pregnancy is very much related to ovarian disorder, it is slightly different and is caused in the tubes to the ovaries. The women experiences dull to sharp pain in such disorders. In fact, in some cases the women also bleed through vagina. The pain is experienced on the left side only if the left part of the womb or ovary is affected by any of these disorders.

All these disorders along with many others like hernia, food poisoning, diverticulitis, etc. causes abdominal pain in lower left side. There are many other causes too which are not mentioned only because they are not commonly found. Irrespective of the causes being common or rare, the disorders causing lower left abdominal pain can be treated if diagnosed in early stage. So, see a doctor as soon as you experience pain in lower abdomen or even on upper abdomen to avoid major health issues later.

Tobacco and Americans

Tobacco and African Americans

  • About 176,000 African Americans live in Washington, representing 3.3 percent of the state’s population.
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • In Washington state, 32.8 percent of African American adults smoke. Almost all of them – 86.2 percent – have tried to quit. Nationally, 33 percent of black men and 34 percent of black women smoke.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • The rate of all kinds of cancer among African Americans has increased 66 percent between 1957 and 1987 – mainly due to lung cancer. During that same 30 years, the rate of lung cancer among black men increased by 259 percent and quadrupled for black women.
    American Cancer Society, “Cancer Facts and Figures for Minority Americans,” 1991
  • Smoking rates among African-American teenagers have sharply dropped while white teenagers are still smoking at high rates. In 1976, according to a federal survey of high school seniors nationwide, 29 percent of white teens smoked and 27 percent of the African- American teenagers smoked. In 1993, 23 percent of white teenagers smoked, compared to only 4 percent of black teenagers.
    “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • Although the smoking rate for African American teens dropped dramatically between 1974 and 1991, the trend is reversing. More and more kids and teens are smoking in the 1990s – an increase found across all class and racial lines. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,”American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • The tobacco industry donates hundreds of thousands of dollars a year to African American community groups. In 1987, the United Negro College Fund received $267,000 from RJ Reynolds, $120,000 from Philip Morris and $32,000 from Brown & Williamson.
    APF Reporter, Spring 1988; “Targeting the African American community” Kaiser Family Foundation, 1991
  • Black and Hispanic neighborhoods had significantly more tobacco and alcohol ads than white or Asian neighborhoods. Tobacco billboards were most common in black neighborhoods – appearing at 2.4 times the citywide rate.
    Schooler and Basil study, 1990, Surgeon General’s report
  • Black smokers are more likely to buy mentholated cigarettes than are white smokers (75 to 23 percent). Cigarette companies target African American audiences with mentholated cigarette advertisements.
    “African Americans and Smoking,” Center for Disease Control, 1990
  • In Washington state, 54.5 percent of African American adults say it’s easy for kids to buy tobacco in their community. About 86 percent of black adults surveyed said tobacco ads should be restricted or not allowed at all. More than half said tobacco companies should not be allowed to distribute free samples, and 33 percent said the practice should be resticted.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • In Washington, 21 percent of African American women smoked during pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoked during pregnancy. Nationally, maternal smoking is highest among white mothers, who smoke at a rate of 21 percent, compared to black mothers at 15.9 percent. Hispanic and Asian mothers smoke at an even lower rate of 7 percent, and less, respectively.
    Washington State Department of Health, “Health Data Report on People of Color,” 1992; National Center for Health Statistics

Tobacco and Hispanics

  • About 284,000 Hispanics live in Washington state, representing 5.3 percent of the state’s population.
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • In Washington state, 26 percent of Hispanic adults smoke. Two-thirds of them (67.4 percent) have tried to quit.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • After nearly a decade of decline, smoking among all races of kids and teens is increasing. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • Among teens in grades 9-12, 8 percent of Hispanic males and 5.7 percent of Hispanic females report frequent smoking.
    American Lung Association, July 1995
  • In Washington state, 61.5 percent of Hispanic adults say it’s easy for kids to buy tobacco in their community. Only 19.4 percent say it’s difficult.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • Hispanic and black neighborhoods had significantly more tobacco and alcohol ads than white or Asian neighborhoods. Tobacco billboards were most common in black neighborhoods – appearing at 2.4 times the citywide rate.
    Schooler and Basil study, 1990, Surgeon General’s report
  • The National Association of Hispanic Publications reports that 350 Hispanic newspapers receive about 20 percent of their ad revenues from alcohol and tobacco companies.
  • In Washington, 80 percent of Hispanic adults believe tobacco ads should be restricted or not allowed at all. Only 7.5 percent say ads should not be restricted.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • Nationally, maternal smoking is highest among white mothers, who smoke at a rate of 21 percent, compared to black mothers at 15.9 percent. Hispanic and Asian mothers smoke at an even lower rate of 7 percent, and less, respectively.
    National Center for Health Statistics
  • In Washington, just 7.5 percent of Hispanic mothers smoke through pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoke during pregnancy.
    Washington State Health Department, “Health Data Report on People of Color,” 1992

Tobacco and Native Americans

  • Some 92,000 Native Americans live in Washington, representing 1.7 percent of the state’s population .
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • Some 42.2 percent of Native American men and 54.1 percent of Native American women smoke. In addition, 14.6 percent of Native American men used smokeless tobacco, according to a survey by the Indian Health Service in 1989.
    Washington State Tobacco Prevention and Control Community Assessment, October, 1992
  • Nationally, 30 percent of Native American men and 30 percent of Native American women smoke.
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, U.S. Current Population Survey
  • A 1987 survey of 1,189 sixth, ninth and 11th graders in three Washington school districts found that 34 percent of Native American boys and 24 percent of Native American girls used smokeless tobacco products. In comparison, 20 percent of white boys and 4 percent of white girls used smokeless tobacco.
    Washington State Tobacco Prevention and Control Community Assessment, October, 1992
  • Nationally, smokeless tobacco use by Native American youth on reservations is higher than that of other groups. There is evidence of early, frequent and heavy use of snuff and chewing tobacco by Native American children.
    Schinke, et al 1989, Surgeon General’s report, 1994; and Schinke, 1987
  • After nearly a decade of decline, smoking among all races of kids and teens is increasing. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • In Washington, almost a third of Native American women smoke during pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoke during pregnancy.
    Washington State Health Department, “Health Data Report on People of Color” 1992
  • Smoking rates for Native-American men are over 50% higher than rates among men in other racial or ethnic groups.
    National Health Interview Survey, 1994

Tobacco and Asian Americans

  • Almost 284,000 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders live in Washington state, representing 5.3 percent of the state’s population.
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • There are 50,000 Southeast Asian immigrants in Washington. In this group, 42.5 percent of men smoke, a rate 1.6 times greater than the prevalence of smoking of all men in Washington (25.5 percent), and 5.7 percent of women smoke, one quarter the rate of all women in Washington.
    “Topics in Minority Health,” MMWR, Nov. 13, 1992
  • Nationally, 22 percent of Asian American men and 11 percent of Asian American women smoke.
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, U.S. Current Population Survey
  • After nearly a decade of decline, smoking among all races of kids and teens is increasing. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • Smoking rates are highest in urban areas, regardless of sex, education, age, and race.
    Dept. of Health and Human Services, “Prevalence of Smoking – Missouri, 1989-1991,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 7, 1995
  • In Washington, just 9 percent of Asian American women smoke through pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoke during pregnancy. Nationally, maternal smoking is highest among white mothers, who smoke at a rate of 21 percent, compared to black mothers at 15.9 percent. Hispanic and Asian mothers smoke at an even lower rate of 7 percent, and less, respectively.
    Washington State Health Department, “Health Data Report on People of color,” 1992; National Center for Health Statistics
  • The Asian American Health Forum in San Franciso reports that awareness of the health risks associated with smoking is minimal in Asia and among Asian immigrants to the U.S. who do not read English. For example, a 1990 survey of adult foreign and American-born Chinese in Oakland, California, found that 40 percent didn’t knw that smoking causes lung cancer.
    The Washington Post, July 16, 1991; and Asian Health Services Survey, 1990
  • While the smoking rate is about 25 percent within the United States, the rate is more than 75 percent for men in some Asian countries. The largest markets for U.S. tobacco products include Japan, Turkey, Hong Kong, and Saudi Arabia.
    Global Trade Information Services, 1994
  • Richard Peto, an epidemiologist at Oxford University, has predicted that because of increased tobaccco consuption in Asia, the annual worldwide death toll will more than triple over the next two or three decades, from about 3 million a year to 10 million a year, a fifth of them in China. He projects that in China, 50 million children alive today will eventually die from tobacco-related diseases.
    New York Times, May 15, 1994
  • Lung cancer rates are very low among Japanese and Filipino Americans and slightly lower among Chinese Americans than white or black Americans. These rates directly reflect smoking behaviors, and will change as minorities adapt or discard smoking practices.
    Cancer Facts and Figures for Minority Americans 1991

Secondhand Smoke in Restaurants

  • At least 450 restaurants in Snohomish and King Counties banned smoking in all dining sections in 1994. As recently as 1982 only 12 restaurants in the area provided completely smoke-free dining.
    American Cancer Society, American Lung Association and Fresh Air for Non-Smokers, May 1994
  • About 153,000 Washington state residents work in the restaurant industry where 43% of all residents food money is spent.
    Washington State Employment Security Department, September 1994; Restaurant Association of Washington, 1994
  • Researchers measuring the air in more than 400 restaurants and 600 homes found restaurant workers were exposed to levels of secondhand smoke twice as high as other office workers and 1.5 times higher than persons living with a smoker. In bars, workers’ secondhand smoke intake was at least four times higher than in offices and homes.
    UC Berkeley/UCSC Preventive Medicine Residency Program, JAMA, July 28, 1993
  • Restaurants that allow smoking can have six times the pollution of a busy highway.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking Or Health
  • A huge majority of diners think smoking in restaurants should be banned, according to a 18,000-person survey by Zagat Survey, publisher of restaurant, hotel, resort and spa guides. Seventy percent of New York residents agreed all smoking in restaurants should be banned; 79 percent in San Francisco and 81 percent in Los Angeles also agreed. Results were published Sept. 29.
    Zagat Survey, September 1994
  • Fifty-six percent of adults would rather dine at a restaurant that banned smoking entirely than one in which smoking was permitted.
    National Restaurant Association, January 1993
  • The National Council of Chain Restaurants, which has 90,000 restaurant members, supports a ban on smoking in all public buildings, including restaurants. A third of their 90,000 members already ban or restrict smoking.
    Washington Post, Feb. 24, 1994
  • Thirteen cities to completely ban smoking in restaurants had no statistically significant loss of business to restaurants in neighboring communities without such laws. In Lodi, Calif., where nearly one-quarter of the 51,000 population smokes, restaurant sales totalled $10 million in 1990 – and remained the same 20 months after the smoke-free laws were in place.
    Stanton Glantz, Lisa Smith, University of California, San Francisco, Oct. 27, 1993
  • City bans on smoking in restaurants don’t significantly impact restaurant sales. Researchers who examined tax records and total retail sales for restaurants in 15 smoke-free communities between 1986 and 1993 found such laws did not affect the fraction of retail sales that went to restaurants or total restaurant sales.
    University of California, San Francisco, “The Effect of Ordinances Requiring Smoke-Free Restaurants on Restaurant Sales,” July 1994
  • Since 1985, nearly 50 jurisdictions, including Puyallup, have banned smoking in restaurants.
    Washington Post, Aug. 3, 1993, Puyallup City Council, September 1994

Secondhand Smoke and Kids

The Children’s Health Index, a nationwide survey of parents sponsored by the magazine PREVENTION, included exposure to second-hand smoke as one of the 15 factors by which it measures children’s overall health. Some of the index’s other factors included wearing seatbelts and bicycle helmets, knowing how to dial 911, and receiving regular check-ups with the doctor and dentist.
The survey said, “The overall health of America’s children would be improved if more parents quit smoking.” It reported the following findings regarding children’s exposure to second-hand smoke:

  • 43 percent of children live in a household with someone who smokes tobacco.
  • 79 percent of children living in smoking households were rated as having “very good” or “excellent” health, as compared to 89 percent of kids in non-smoking households.
  • Children who live in households with an income of $25,000 or less are more likely to be exposed to second-hand smoke. Regardless of income level, however, children in non-smoking households tend to be healthier than those in smoking households.
    The survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates, interviewed 766 parents nationwide in November, 1994.
    Source: “Children’s Health Index,” PREVENTION, September 27, 1995.
  • More young people are killed by parental smoking than by all other unintentional injuries combined.
  • 5.4 million children suffer annually from non-fatal asthma and ear infections as a result of parental smoking, requiring $4.6 billion in treatment each year.
    Source: Study by University of Wisconsin, found in the July 1997 edition of Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.

How to detect bronchitis symptoms

Despite the advances in science and technology in this age, people are still afflicted by diseases that have long plagued mankind. One of these diseases is bronchitis – which is a common term that refers to the swelling and inflammation of lungs airways caused by certain factors. The statistics for bronchitis are sadly high as indicated by the World Health Organization report in 2004. For a modernized country like Australia, the WHO reported that bronchitis prevalence along with other respiratory disorders like asthma and emphysema lead to 20 male deaths per 100,000 population. For this reason, the health agencies must be aggressive in educating the public about bronchitis symptoms so measures can be immediately taken.

Yet, it would be helpful to know that are two types of bronchitis: acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the lungs mainly caused by smoking for long period of time. On the contrary, acute bronchitis happens unexpectedly which is triggered by a bacterial or viral infection. This type of bronchitis is very common during cold season and affects a great number of children and elderly. Nonetheless, the disease can be effectively treated as soon as bronchitis symptoms are consulted with a health professional.

Bronchitis Symptoms

The most usual bronchitis symptoms according to the Mayo Clinic website are as follows:

  • Cough – coughing is a normal reaction to remove mucus from the lungs. It can be inconvenient particularly when it is non-productive which is why people consult a doctor even for a cough.
  •  Shortness of breath – This is further worsened by physical exertion so doing some tasks can be tiring. It is preferable to rest when you have bronchitis.
  •  Slight fever and chills – The person runs a low fever  with colds which can make the person mistake the symptom for a flu.
  •  Wheezing & Weakness – The person feels weak and moves less.
  •  Chest discomfort

 There are other important things you must understand. First, bronchitis symptoms are the same for adult or young children. Also, the two types of bronchitis manifest the same bronchitis symptoms. Nonetheless, recurring respiratory symptoms needs prompt medical attention since this may indicate other respiratory diseases.

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.

How to choose the right Koi fish food

A lot of Koi fish breeders and hobbyists are always searching for ways to make their Koi fish healthy and lively. Truth be told, choosing the right koi fish food  is one of the prerequisites  to having beautiful koi fish. In the first place, the value of a koi fish is often determined by its size, color and health condition. For this reason, having the right koi fish food would enhance the grade of your koi fish breed.Koi fish food with good quality also results to efficient feeding since the fishes are fed with the right amount of food that leads to satisfaction. In most cases, many koi fish owners make the mistake of over feeding their pets thinking that this approach would make the fish grow bigger. Thus, understanding how to buy the right Koi fish food would help you grow healthy and lively koi fish. The following suggestions are valuable:
 
Buy the perfect koi fish food by reading the labels. It’s just like buying your own food, it helps to know what is contained in the package. Some contents like ash, fibre and moisture are not really that vital so check the labels. Normally, typical koi fish food are available in pellet form which is suited for koi.
 
Select only high quality products. Avoid buying cheap koi fish food. Many pet owners buy repackaged cheap koi fish food pellets that look many when actually it would just be wasted. If you feed low quality fish food to your koi, they would just secrete too much waste. They would just release too much nitrate and ammonia which is harmful to the pond’s condition.
 
Be wise in choosing the right type of diet for your fish. There are different seasons which should be a guide when feeding your koi fishes. Don’t give too much koi fish food during winter season since the fish usually avoid eating too much. If you do so, you would just be polluting the pond.
 
Having healthy and beautiful koi is not hard to achieve as long as you choose the right type of  food. At the same time,create a regular feeding habit that would suit the fish food of your choice.

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